Characterisation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers

TRIMANTO, SAJIDAN, SUGIYARTO

Abstract. Trimanto, Sajidan, Sugiyarto. 2011. Characterization of taro (Colocasia esculenta) based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers. Nusantara Bioscience: 7-14. The aims of this research were to find out: (i) the variety of Colocasia esculenta based on the morphological characteristics; (ii) the variety of C. esculenta based on the isozymic banding pattern; and (iii) the correlation of genetic distance based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern. Survey research conducted in the Karanganyar district, which include high, medium and low altitude. The sample was taken using random purposive sampling technique, including 9 sampling points. The morphological data was elaborated descriptively and then made dendogram. The data on isozymic banding pattern was analyzed quantitatively based on the presence or absence of bands appeared on the gel, and then made dendogram. The correlation based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern were analyzed based on the product-moment correlation coefficient with goodness of fit criterion. The result showed : (i) in Karanganyar was founded 10 variety of C. esculenta; (ii) morphological characteristics are not affected by altitude; (iii) isozymic banding pattern of peroxides forms 14 banding patterns, esterase forms 11 banding patterns and shikimic dehydrogenase forms 15 banding patterns; (iv) the correlation of morphological data and the isozymic banding pattern of peroxidase has good correlation (0.893542288) while esterase and shikimic dehydrogenase isozymes have very good correlation (0.917557716 and 0.9121985446); (v) isozymic banding pattern of data supports the morphological character data.
Key words: taro, Colocasia esculenta, morphology, isozyme.

Abstrak. Trimanto, Sajidan, Sugiyarto. 2011. Karakterisasi talas (Colocasia esculenta) berdasarkan penanda morfologi dan pola pita isozim. Nusantara Bioscience: 7-14. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui: (i) keragaman Colocasia esculenta berdasarkan karakter morfologi; (ii) keragaman C. esculenta berdasarkan pola pita isozim, dan (iii) hubungan jarak genetik berdasarkan karakter morfologi dan pola pita isozim. Survei penelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Karanganyar, di ketinggian tinggi, sedang dan rendah. Sampel diambil menggunakan teknik random sampling purposif, mencakup 9 titik cuplikan. Data morfologi diuraikan secara deskriptif dan kemudian dibuat dendogram kekerabatan. Data pola pita isozim dianalisis secara kuantitatif berdasarkan ada atau tidaknya pita di gel, kemudian dibuat dendogramnya. Korelasi berdasarkan karakter morfologi dan pola pita isozim dianalisis berdasarkan korelasi koefisien momen-produk kriteria goodness of fit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (i) di Karanganyar terdapat 10 varietas C. esculenta; (ii) karakter morfologi tidak terpengaruh oleh ketinggian; (iii) peroksidase membentuk 14 pola pita isozim, esterse membentuk 11 pola pita dan shikimate dehidrogenase membentuk 15 pola pita; (iv) data morfologi dengan isozim peroksidase memiliki korelasi yang baik (0,893542288), sementara data morfologi dengan isozim esterse dan shikimate dehidrogenase memiliki korelasi yang sangat baik (0,917557716 dan 0,9121985446); (v) data pola pita isozim mendukung data karakter morfologi.
Kata kunci: talas, Colocasia esculenta, morfologi, isozim

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