Microanatomy alteration of gills and kidneys in freshwater mussel (Anodonta woodiana) due to cadmium exposure

FUAD FITRIAWAN, SUTARNO, SUNARTO

Abstract. Fitriawan F, Sutarno, Sunarto. 2011. Microanatomy alteration of gills and kidneys in freshwater mussel (Anodonta woodiana) due to cadmium exposure. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 28-35. The purpose of this study were to determine the level of Cd accumulation in the gills and kidneys, to khow the changes in microanatomic structure of A. woodiana after the various treatments of heavy metals. Completely randomized design pattern of 5 x 3 as used in this laboratory experiment. The amount of exposure of heavy metals Cd were (0 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1 ppm, 5 ppm, 10 ppm), while the variation of length of exprosure time to Cd were (7 days, 14 days, and 30 days). The parameters of Cd accumulation in the gills and kidney was analyzed by using AAS method, while abnormalities of gills and kidney were detected by microanatomy structure. Data collected were then analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and continued with further test the DMRT. The results indicated that there is a significant effect in 475.3 > 0.000 and 60150.3 >0.000 with 5% significance level (P<0.05) of Cd treatment on gill and kidney microanatomy of A. woodiana. The changes in microanatomy structure of those organs are including edema, hyperplasia, fusion of lamella, necrosis and atrophy.
Key words: gills, kidneys, Anodonta woodiana, cadmium.

Abstrak. Fitriawan F, Sutarno, Sunarto. 2011. Perubahan mikroanatomi pada insang dan ginjal kerang air tawar (Anodonta woodiana) terhadap paparan kadmium. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 28-35. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui tingkat akumulasi, perubahan struktur mikroanatomi setelah perlakuan logam berat Cd pada insang dan ginjal A. woodiana. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan yaitu eksperimental laboratorium dengan rancangan acak lengkap (5 x 3) berupa besarnya paparan Cd (0 ppm, 0,5 ppm, 1 ppm, 5 ppm, 10 ppm) dan waktu pemaparan Cd (setelah 7 hari, 14 hari, dan 30 hari). Parameter pengujian mencakup uji akumulasi Cd pada insang dan ginjal dengan metode AAS, dan abnormalitas insang dan ginjal akibat akumulasi Cd dengan metode preparasi. Analisis akumulasi Cd pada insang dan ginjal menggunakan analisis varian (ANAVA) dan dilanjutkan dengan uji lanjut jarak berganda Duncan (DMRT). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengaruh pemberian beberapa perlakuan Cd terhadap kontrol insang dan ginjal A. woodiana signifikan sebesar 475,3 > 0,000 dan 60150,3 > 0,000 dengan taraf signifikansi rata-rata 5% (P<0,05) yang ditandai dengan perubahan struktur mikroanatomi pada insang berupa edema, hiperplasia, fusi lamella, nekrosis hingga atropi. Sedangkan pada ginjal berupa edema, hiperplasia dan nekrosis pada tubulus, glomerulus, dan mineralisasi pada sel darah hingga mengalami pendarahan.
Kata kunci: insang, ginjal, Anodonta woodiana, kadmium.

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