Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta) forests of central India

KRISHNA KANT SONI, ABHISHEK PYASI, RAM KEERTI VERMA

Abstract. Soni KK, Pyasi A, Verma RK. 2011. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta) forests of central India. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. The present study aim on isolation and identification of fungi associated with decomposition of litter of sal forest in central India. Season wise successional changes in litter mycoflora were determined for four main seasons of the year namely, March-May, June-August, September-November and December-February. Fungi like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were associated with litter decomposition throughout the year, while Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, and C. lunata were recorded in three seasons. Some fungi including ectomycorrhiza forming occur only in the rainy season (June-August) these are Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba and four sterile fungi. Fungi like Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis and Pithomyces cortarum were rarely recorded only in one season.

Key words: decomposition, fungi, forests, litter, sal, seasonal variation.

Abstrak. Soni KK, Pyasi A, RK Verma. 2011. Fungi pembusuk serasah pada hutan-hutan meranti merah muda (Shorea robusta) di India tengah. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi fungi yang terlibat dalam dekomposisi serasah dari hutan meranti merah muda di India tengah. Sejalan dengan perubahan suksesional fungi pendegradasi serasah, maka penelitian dilakukan pada empat musim utama dalam setahun, yaitu Maret-Mei, Juni-Agustus, September-November, dan Desember-Februari. Fungi seperti Aspergillus flavus, A. niger dan Rhizopus stolonifer terlibat dalam dekomposisi serasah sepanjang tahun, sementara Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, dan C. lunata terlibat dalam tiga musim. Beberapa fungi termasuk fungi pembentuk ectomycorrhiza hanya ditemukan pada musim hujan (Juni-Agustus) yaitu Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba dan empat fungi steril. Fungi seperti Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis dan Pithomyces cortarum jarang ditemukan dan hanya ditemukan dalam satu musim.

Kata kunci: dekomposisi, serasah, fungi, hutan-hutan meranti merah muda, variasi musiman.

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