Evaluation of the effectiveness of integrated management and mating disruption in controlling gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) populations

GOODARZ HAJIZADEH, MOHAMMAD REZA KAVOSI

 Abstract.  Hajizadeh  G,  Kavosi  MR.  2012.  Evaluation  of  the  effectiveness  of  integrated  management  and  mating  disruption  in controlling gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) populations. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 27-31. This study was conducted during 2008 and 2009 in Daland National Park (north of Iran) to compare the effectiveness of mechanical control used in combination with mating disruption (integrated management) and only mating disruption in controlling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Male moths and egg mass counts were taken before (2008) and after (2009) the two treatments were applied. In sites with integrated management and with mating disruption only, 1,828 and 1,793 egg masses/tree, and 412.75 and 207.75 male moths/trap were observed, respectively. Both the numbers of egg masses/tree and of male moths/trap were significantly lower in sites with integrated management than in sites with only mating disruption. This study shows that integrated management was more effective than mating disruption in reducing infestation levels in the study site.

Key words: egg masses, integrated management, Lymantria dispar, mating disruption, mechanical method, pheromone traps

Abstrak. Hajizadeh G, Kavosi MR. 2012. Evaluasi tentang efektifitas manajemen terpadu dan gangguan perkawinan dalam mengontrol populasi ngengat gipsi Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Nusantara Bioscience 4: 27-31. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama tahun 2008 dan 2009 di Taman Nasional Daland (bagian utara Iran) untuk membandingkan efektivitas pengendalian mekanis yang digunakan dikombinasi dengan gangguan perkawinan (manajemen terpadu) dan hanya gangguan perkawinan saja dalam pengendalian ngengat gipsi, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Penghitungan ngengat jantan dan jumlah massa telur dilakukan sebelum (2008) dan setelah (2009) dua perlakuan diterapkan. Di lokasi dengan manajemen terpadu dan dengan gangguan perkawinan saja, terdapat 1.828 dan 1.793 massa telur/pohon, serta 412,75 dan 207,75 ngengat jantan/perangkap. Jumlah massa telur/pohon dan ngengat  jantan/perangkap  secara  signifikan  jauh  lebih  rendah  pada  lokasi  dengan  manajemen  terpadu  daripada  di  lokasi  dengan gangguan perkawinan saja. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa manajemen terpadu lebih efektif daripada gangguan perkawinan dalam mengurangi tingkat serangan hama di lokasi penelitian.

Kata kunci: massa telur, manajemen terpadu, Lymantria dispar, gangguan perkawinan, cara mekanik, perangkap feromon

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Community structure of parasitoids Hymenoptera associated with Brassicaceae and non-crop vegetation

YAHERWANDI

 Abstract. Yaherwandi. 2012. Community structure of parasitoids Hymenoptera associated with Brassicaceae and non-crop vegetation. Nusantara  Bioscience  4:  22-26.  Parasitoids  Hymenoptera  have  an  important  role  in  agroecosystem  because  of  their  ability  in suppressing pest population. Their presence in the field is seen as the key to agricultural ecosystem. Their presence can be influenced by the availability of non-crop vegetation. Some adult parasitoids Hymenoptera require food in the form of pollen and nectar of wild flowers to ensure effective reproduction and longevity. The objective of this research was to study communities of parasitoid Hymenoptera in Brassicaceae field and non-crop vegetation around Brassicaceae fields. Samplings were conducted at two different landscape structures, i.e. Kayu Tanduak and Padang Laweh representing complex landscapes, whereas Alahan Panjang and Sungai Nanam representing simple landscapes. Insects were sampled by three trapping techniques (farmcop, sweep net, and yellow pan traps) in one line of transect for each landscape. A total of 84 species from 17 families of parasitoids Hymenoptera were collected in Bracicaceae field and in non-crop vegetation. Landscape structure, flowering vegetation, and pesticide application affected the species richness, diversity and evenness of parasitoids Hymenoptera in Brassicaceae fields and non-crop vegetation.

Key words: Brassicaceae, community structure, landscape, non-crop vegetation, parasitoid Hymenoptera.

Abstrak.  Yaherwandi.  2012.  Struktur  komunitas  Hymenoptera  parasitoid  yang  berasosiasi  dengan  tanaman  Brassicaceae  dan tumbuhan liar. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 22-26. Hymenoptera parasitoid memiliki peran penting dalam agroekosistem karena kemampuannya dalam menekan populasi hama. Keanekaragaman Hymenoptera parasitoid dapat dipengaruhi oleh ketersediaan vegetasi liar  berbunga,  karena  beberapa  parasitoid  dewasa  Hymenoptera  membutuhkan  serbuk  sari  dan  nektar  untuk  reproduksi  dan kelangsungan hidupnya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari keanekaragaman Hymenoptera parasitoid pada pertanaman Brassicaceae dan tumbuhan liar di sekitarnya. Pengambilan sampel serangga dilakukan pada dua lanskap pertanian yang berbeda, yaitu Kayu Tanduak dan Padang Laweh mewakili lanskap pertanian yang kompleks, sedangkan Alahan Panjang dan Sungai Nanam mewakili lanskap pertanian yang sederhana. Koleksi sampel serangga menggunakan tiga metode yaitu farmcop, jaring serangga, dan nampan kuning. Total Hymenoptera parasitoid yang telah dikoleksi pada pertanaman Brasicaceae dan tumbuhan liar adalah 84 spesies yang termasuk ke dalam 17 famili. Struktur lansekap pertanian, tumbuhan liar berbunga, dan aplikasi pestisida mempengaruhi kekayaan, keanekaragaman dan kemerataan spesies Hymenoptera parasitoid pada pertanaman Brassicaceae dan tumbuhan liar.

Kata kunci: Brassicaceae, struktur komunitas, lanskap, tumbuhan liar, Hymenoptera parasitoid.

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Physiological effect of some antioxidant polyphenols on sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis) plants

ABDALLA EL-MOURSI, IMAN MAHMOUD TALAAT, LAILA KAMAL BALBAA

Abstract.  El-Moursi  A,  Talaat  IM,  Balbaa  LK.  2012.  Physiological  effect  of  some  antioxidant polyphenols  on  sweet  marjoram (Majorana hortensis) plants. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 11-15. Two pot experiments were conducted in the screen of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to study the physiological effect of foliar application of some antioxidant polyphenols on growth and chemical constituents of sweet marjoram plants (Majorana hortensis L.). Plants were treated with curcuminoids, cinnamic acid and salicylic acid, each at 5 and 10 mg/L except the control plants.The results indicate that foliar application of curcuminoids increased growth parameters under study. Total sugars were also increased as a result of foliar application of curcuminoids. On the other hand, oil %, oil yield and nitrogen % were decreased as a result of curcuminoids treatments. Cinnamic acid at 5 mg/L resulted in the tallest plants in most cases. Application of cinnamic acid at 10 mg/L signicantly increased oil % and total oil yield/plant. Sugar content followed the same trend. Treatment of sweet marjoram plants with salicylic acid significantly increased oil % and oil yield, especially in plants treated with 10 mg/L SA. Total sugars % and total nitrogen % followed the same trend. The main constituents of the plant essential oil were also markedly affected.

Key words: sweet marjoram, antioxidant polyphenols, curcuminoids.

Abstract. El-Moursi A, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2012. Pengaruh fisiologis beberapa polifenol antioksidan terhadap tanaman marjoram manis (Majorana hortensis). Nusantara  Bioscience 4: 11-15. Dua percobaan  pot telah  dilakukan  di rumah  kaca Pusat Penelitian Nasional, Dokki, Kairo, Mesir untuk mempelajari pengaruh fisiologis aplikasi foliar beberapa polifenol antioksidan pada pertumbuhan dan kandungan kimia tanaman marjoram manis (Majorana hortensis L.). Tanaman diperlakukan dengan kurkuminoid, asam sinamat dan asam salisilat, masing-masing sebanyak 5 dan 10 mg/L, kecuali tanaman kontrol. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi foliar dari kurkuminoid meningkat parameter pertumbuhan tanaman yang diteliti. Total gula juga meningkat akibat aplikasi foliar kurkuminoid. Di sisi lain, persentase minyak, hasil minyak dan persentase nitrogen menurun akibat perlakuan kurkuminoid. Perlakuan asam sinamat pada 5 mg/L menghasilkan tanaman tertinggi dalam keseluruhan percobaan. Perlakuan asam sinamat pada 10 mg/L secara signifikan meningkat persentase minyak dan kandungan minyak total/tanaman. Kadar gula menunjukkan kecenderungan yang sama. Perlakuan tanaman marjoram manis dengan asam salisilat secara signifikan meningkatkan persentase minyak dan kandungan minyak yang dihasilkan, terutama pada tanaman yang diperlakukan dengan asam salisilat sebanyak 10 mg/L. Total persentase gula dan total persentase nitrogen menunjukkan kecenderungan yang sama. Konstituen utama dari minyak atsiri tanaman juga sangat terpengaruh.

Key words: marjoram manis, polifenol antioksidan, kurkuminoid.

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Characterization of Carica pubescens in Dieng Plateau, Central Java based on morphological characters, antioxidant capacity, and protein banding pattern

AINUN NIKMATI LAILY, SURANTO, SUGIYARTO

 Abstract. Laily AN, Suranto, Sugiyarto. 2012. Characterization of Carica pubescens in Dieng Plateau, Central Java based on morphological characters, antioxidant capacity, and protein banding pattern. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 16-21. Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch is a species of fruit plant firstly cultivated in South America and has adapted to the highland environment, such as Dieng Plateau, Central Java (~2000 m asl). It has a narrow habitat range and limited or unknown intraspecies variation. Therefore, important information about the characters of the plants at various altitudes is needed, so that it is possible to extend its distribution through transplantation to other areas. Characterization can be performed based on morphological characters, chemical content, and protein banding patterns. This study aimed to describe the morphological characters, the chemical content (antioxidant capacity), and the pattern of protein bands by staining, using coomassie brilliant blue on C. pubescens in the Dieng Plateau. The research was conducted in the villages of Kejajar (1400 m asl), Patak Banteng (1900 m asl), and Sembungan (2400 m asl). The observations of morphological characters were conducted in the field and continued in the laboratory. Morphological characters, the chemical content (antioxidant capacity), and the banding pattern of protein of C. pubescens were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the morphological characters of C. pubescens in Dieng Plateau varried in stems, leaves and fruits. The antioxidant capacity  decreased with decreasing habitat altitude, 2400 m asl altitude> 1900 m altitude> 1400 m asl. The Protein banding patterns did not vary, but the pattern in C. Papaya was different. The uniformity of the pattern of protein bands showed that genetic stability in C.pubescens was not affected by environmental factors.

Key words: Carica pubescens, morphological characters, antioxidant capacity, protein banding pattern.

Abstrak. Laily AN, Suranto, Sugiyarto. 2012. Karakterisasi Carica pubescens di Dataran Tinggi Dieng, Jawa Tengah berdasarkan sifat morfologi,  kapasitas  antioksidan,  dan  pola  pita  protein.  Nusantara  Bioscience  4:  16-21.  Carica  pubescens  Lenne  &  K.  Koch merupakan jenis tanaman buah yang pertamakali dibudidayakan di Amerika Selatan dan beradaptasi pada lingkungan dataran tinggi, misalnya Dataran Tinggi Dieng, Jawa Tengah (~2000 m dpl). C. pubescens memiliki daerah persebaran sempit dan variasi intraspesies terbatas atau belum diketahui. Oleh karenanya, diperlukan informasi mengenai karakter tanaman pada berbagai ketinggian sehingga dimungkinkan untuk memperluas daerah penyebaran melalui transplantasi di daerah lain. Karakterisasi dapat dilakukan berdasarkan karakter morfologi, kandungan kimia, dan pola pita protein. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakter morfologi, kandungan kimia (kapasitas antioksidan), dan pola pita protein dengan pewarnaan coomassie brilliant blue pada C. pubescens di Dataran Tinggi Dieng. Penelitian lapangan dilakukan di Desa Kejajar (1400 m dpl), Patak Banteng (1900 m dpl), dan Sembungan (2400 m dpl). Pengamatan karakter morfologi dilakukan di lapangan dan dilanjutkan di laboratorium. Karakter morfologi, kandungan kimia (kapasitas antioksidan), dan pola pita protein C. pubescens  dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakter morfologi C. pubescens di Dataran Tinggi Dieng bervariasi pada batang, daun, dan buah. Kapasitas antioksidannya bervariasi dengan urutan dari ketinggian 2400  m dpl > 1900  m dpl > 1400  m dpl. Pola pita proteinnya tidak bervariasi antar ketinggian, namun berbeda dengan C. papaya. Keseragaman pola pita protein menunjukkan kestabilan genetik C. pubescens tidak dipengaruhi oleh perubahan lingkungan.

Kata kunci: Carica pubescens, karakter morfologi, kapasitas antioksidan, pola pita protein

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Toxicity response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) to some agricultural pesticides

 

ALIAKBAR HEDAYATI, REZA TARKHANI, AHMAD SHADI

Abstract. Hedayati A, Tarkhani R, Shadi A. 2012. Mortality response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) to some agricultural pesticides. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 6-10. This research was performed to determine and compare acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the freshwater guppy Poecilia reticulata. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h was attained by probit analysis by Finney’s and using the maximum-likelihood procedure (SPSS). The 24-96 h LC50 for the diazinon were 40.9±0.98, 33.2±0.84, 23.2±0.74 and 16.8±0.57 ppm respectively. The 24-96 h LC50 for the deltamethrin were 0.297±0.13, 0.236±0.16, 0.204±0.47 and 0.195±0.06 ppm respectively. In the present study, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin was more toxic than diazinon to this species. LC50 values obtained in the present study were different from the corresponding values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish..

Key words: fish, LC50, diazinon,deltamethrin, pollution, toxicity, guppy.

Abstrak. Hedayati A, Tarkhani R, Shadi A. 2012. Respon kematian Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) terhadap beberapa pestisida pertanian. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 6-10. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menentukan dan membandingkan toksisitas akut diazinon dan deltametrin sebagai pestisida organik dengan potensi berbahaya untuk menilai efek kematian dari bahan- bahan kimia ini pada guppy  air tawar Poecilia reticulata. LC50  24 jam, 48 jam, 72 jam dan 96 jam dilakukan dengan analisis probit Finney dan menggunakan prosedur maximum-likelihood (SPSS). Nilai  LC50 24-96 jam untuk diazinon adalah 40,9±0,98, 0,84±33,2, 23,2±0,74 dan 16,8±0,57 ppm. LC50  24-96 jam untuk deltametrin adalah 0.297±0,13, 0,236±0,16, 0,204±0,47 dan 0,195±0,06 ppm. Dalam penelitian ini, nilai LC50  menunjukkan bahwa deltametrin lebih beracun dari diazinon untuk spesies ini. LC50  yang diperoleh dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda dibandingkan dengan nilai LC50 pada spesies ikan lainnya.

Kata kunci: ikan, LC50, diazinon, deltametrin, polusi, toksisitas, guppy.

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The effect of zearalenone mycotoxins administration at late gestation days on the development and reproductive organs of mice

 

YULIA IRNIDAYANTI

Abstract. Irnidayanti Y. 2012. The effect of zearalenone mycotoxins administration at late gestation days on the development and reproductive organs of mice. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 1-5. Zearalenone was injected subcutaneously with a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to pregnant mice on the 13 to 16 days. Control was given only sesame oil. Control and treated mice were killed on day 18 of gestation by cervical dislocation. Observations of maternal body weight, reproductive performance, external and internal malformation were conducted. Histological analysis of fetal ovaries, uterus, and testes were also done. The results revealed that administration of zearalenone to mice at late gestation was not teratogenic. Zearalenone caused a tendency that the primordial follicles and follicular cells relatively decreased in number and the number of the degenerate primordial follicle relatively increased. Effects of zearalenone on the uterus caused a significant increase in the height of lumen epithelial cells and in the thickness of the uterine wall were significantly. The lamina propria and myometrium started to differentiate. In the male fetus, zearalenone caused a tendency deacrease in number of the Leydig cells.

Key words: zearalenone, primordial follicle, follicle cells, uterus, Leydig cells.

 

Abstrak. Irnidayanti Y. 2012. Pengaruh pemberian mikotoksin zearalenon pada umur kebuntingan lanjut terhadap perkembangan dan organ reproduksi mencit.Nusantara Bioscience 4: 1-5. Zearalenon diberikan pada induk mencit bunting pada umur kebuntingan 13 sampai dengan 16 hari secara subkutan. Mencit kontrol hanya diberi minyak wijen. Mencit kontrol dan perlakuan dibunuh pada umur kebuntingan  18  hari  secara  dislokasi  leher.  Pengamatan  dilakukan  terhadap  berat  badan  induk,  penampilan  reproduksi,  kelainan eksternal dan internal. Pengujian juga dilakukan terhadap histologis ovarium fetus, uterus fetus dan testis fetus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian zearalenon kepada mencit pada umur kebuntingan lanjut, tidak bersifat teratogenik. Zearalenon cenderung  menyebabkan  folikel-folikel  primordial  dan  sel-sel  folikel  primordial,  relatif  jumlahnya  menurun  dan  jumlah  folikel primordial yang berdegenerasi relatif meningkat. Pemberian zearalenon menyebabkan bertambah tingginya sel-sel epitel pada lumen uterus, secara signifikan dan bertambahnya ketebalan dinding uterus secara signifikan Lamina propria dan miometrium sudah mulai berdifferensiasi. Pada fetus jantan, zearalenon cenderung menyebabkan penurunan jumlah sel-sel Leydig.

Kata kunci: zearalenone, folikel primordial, sel-sel folikel, uterus, sel Leydig

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Biological screening of selected traditional medicinal plants species utilized by local people of Manokwari, West Papua Province

Obed Lense

Abstract. Lense O. 2011. Biological screening of selected traditional medicinal plants species utilized by local people of Manokwari, West Papua Province. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 145-150. The aim of the research was to determine the presence of alkaloids and anti-microbial activity in extracts from selected medicinal plants from Manokwari District, West Papua, Indonesia. The method of alkaloid testing followed the standard phytochemical methods. The procedure of the Calibrated Dichotomous Sensitivity (CDS) test was used for the antimicrobial bioassays. Results of biological screening suggested that all but one of the 56 species tested contained different levels of alkaloids. Eleven species showed anti-microbial activity using bioassays of responses to two bacteria, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two fungi Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans; none of the plant extracts showed an antimicrobial effect against the bacteria Escherichia coli. Extract of Planconella sp. was the most active one as it showed activity against three different organisms (C. albicans, C. neoformans, and S. typhi).

Key words: biological screening, local people, Manokwari, traditional medicinal plant, West Papua.

Abstrak. Lense O. 2011. Penapisan hayati beberapa jenis tumbuhan obat tradisional terpilih yang dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat lokal Manokwari, Provinsi Papua Barat. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 145-150. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya alkaloid dan aktivitas anti-mikroba ekstrak beberapa tanaman obat terpilih dari Kabupaten Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia. Metode pengujian alkaloid mengikuti metode fitokimia standar. Prosedur uji Calibrated Dichotomous Sensitivity (CDS) digunakan untuk uji hayati anti-mikroba. Hasil penapisan hayati menunjukkan bahwa ke-56 jenis yang diuji mengandung alkaloid dengan kadar yang berbeda-beda, kecuali satu jenis. Sebelas jenis menunjukkan aktivitas anti-mikroba berdasarkan respons uji hayati terhadap dua bakteri, Salmonella typhi dan Klebsiella pneumoniae, dan dua jamur Candida albicans dan Cryptococcus neoformans, tidak satupun dari ekstrak tanaman yang menunjukkan efek anti-mikroba terhadap bakteri Escherichia coli. Ekstrak Planconella sp. adalah yang paling aktif karena menunjukkan aktivitas terhadap tiga organisme yang berbeda (C. albicans, C. neoformans, dan S. typhi).

Kata kunci: penapisan biologi, masyarakat lokal, Manokwari, tumbuhan obat tradisional, Papua Barat.

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Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta) forests of central India

KRISHNA KANT SONI, ABHISHEK PYASI, RAM KEERTI VERMA

Abstract. Soni KK, Pyasi A, Verma RK. 2011. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta) forests of central India. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. The present study aim on isolation and identification of fungi associated with decomposition of litter of sal forest in central India. Season wise successional changes in litter mycoflora were determined for four main seasons of the year namely, March-May, June-August, September-November and December-February. Fungi like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were associated with litter decomposition throughout the year, while Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, and C. lunata were recorded in three seasons. Some fungi including ectomycorrhiza forming occur only in the rainy season (June-August) these are Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba and four sterile fungi. Fungi like Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis and Pithomyces cortarum were rarely recorded only in one season.

Key words: decomposition, fungi, forests, litter, sal, seasonal variation.

Abstrak. Soni KK, Pyasi A, RK Verma. 2011. Fungi pembusuk serasah pada hutan-hutan meranti merah muda (Shorea robusta) di India tengah. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi fungi yang terlibat dalam dekomposisi serasah dari hutan meranti merah muda di India tengah. Sejalan dengan perubahan suksesional fungi pendegradasi serasah, maka penelitian dilakukan pada empat musim utama dalam setahun, yaitu Maret-Mei, Juni-Agustus, September-November, dan Desember-Februari. Fungi seperti Aspergillus flavus, A. niger dan Rhizopus stolonifer terlibat dalam dekomposisi serasah sepanjang tahun, sementara Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, dan C. lunata terlibat dalam tiga musim. Beberapa fungi termasuk fungi pembentuk ectomycorrhiza hanya ditemukan pada musim hujan (Juni-Agustus) yaitu Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba dan empat fungi steril. Fungi seperti Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis dan Pithomyces cortarum jarang ditemukan dan hanya ditemukan dalam satu musim.

Kata kunci: dekomposisi, serasah, fungi, hutan-hutan meranti merah muda, variasi musiman.

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Variation in oil contents, and seed and seedling characteristics of Jatropha curcas of West Nusa Tenggara selected genotypes and their first improved population

Bambang Budi Santoso

Abstract. Santoso BS. 2011. Variation in oil contents, and seed and seedling characteristics of Jatropha curcas of West Nusa Tenggara selected genotypes and their first improved population. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 130-135. This study describes variation in seed and seedling characters of Jatropha curcas Linn. of West Nusa Tenggara selected genotypes. Exploration was conducted in several areas where large population of this species grown as fences was found. Five selected genotypes were then grown in experimental fields to let mass selection to obtain the first improved population for each genotype. Seeds of wild population (P0) and those of selected trees as the first improved population (IP-1) were subjected to this study. Seed and seedling characteristics were measured. The result indicated that considerable genetic variability existed among the five J. curcas of West Nusa Tenggara selected genotypes and within each genotype population for seed and seedling characteristics. Genotypes of West Lombok, Sumbawa, and Bima performed exceedingly better than those of Central Lombok and East Lombok. Therefore, this study has suggestions for identifying potential seed sources of J. curcas and these existing genetic variability provides breeders with materials in crop improvement program.

Keywords: genetic variability, seeds, seedling, selection.

Abstrak. Santoso BS. 2011. Keragaman kandungan minyak, serta karakteristik biji dan bibit genotipe terpilih Jatropha curcas Nusa Tenggara Barat dan populasi pertamanya yang diperkaya. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 130-135. Kajian ini menjelaskan keragaman karakteristik benih dan bibit Jatropha curcas Linn. Nusa Tenggara Barat dari genotipe terpilih. Eksplorasi dilakukan di beberapa daerah dimana populasi-populasi besar jenis ini ditemukan sebagai tanaman pagar. Lima genotipe yang terpilih kemudian ditanam di lahan percobaan untuk memulai seleksi massal untuk mendapatkan populasi yang diperkaya pertama pada setiap kenotipe. Benih dari populasi liar (P0) dan pohon-pohon yang dipilih sebagai populasi yang diperkaya pertama (IP-1) menjadi subyek penelitian ini. Karakteristik benih dan bibit diukur. Hasilnya menunjukkan adanya variabilitas genetik yang cukup tinggi di antara lima genotipe terpilih J. curcas Nusa Tenggara Barat dan karakteristik benih dan bibit dari setiap populasi genotipe. Genotipe dari Lombok Barat, Sumbawa, dan Bima memiliki penampilan yang jauh lebih baik dari pada genotipe dari Lombok Tengah dan Lombok Timur. Hasil penelitian ini dapat menjadi acuan dalam mengidentifikasi potensi sumber benih J. curcas dan menunjukkan adanya variabilitas genetik yang diperlukan penangkar sebagai bahan untuk program pemuliaan tanaman.

Kata kunci: variabilitas genetik, benih, pembibitan, seleksi.

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Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) breeding based on RAPD analysis

Fetrina Oktavia, Mudji Lasminingsih, Kuswanhadi

Abstract. Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi. 2011. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) breeding based on RAPD analysis. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 124-129. The parent trees’ clones usually originate from the previous generation having the potential of high production with better agronomical characters. Although, phenotype characters can determine the genetic variability among accessions, they are highly sensitive to environmental factors, so it is often difficult to identify the difference between closely related clones. The genetic variability or phylogenetic relationships among rubber clones can be analysis using RAPD method, and based on the result, the parent trees can be selected. This research was aimed to analyze the genetic distance among rubber clones using RAPD method. Analysis was conducted on 45 rubber clones with 12 random primers. Pair-wise comparisons of unique and shared polymorphic amplification products were used to generate similarity coefficients. These coefficients were employed to construct a dendogram by using an Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetical Averages (UPGMA). The amplification of genomic DNA from 45 clones yielded 2408 DNA fragments, ranging in size from 250 bp to 3000 bp. The range of genetic similarity matrix was very wide (59.18%-94.23%). It indicated that most of the clones have a low level of polymorphism. The lowest genetic similarity (59,18%) was found between RRIC 110 and AVROS 352 clones, while the highest (94.23%) was between IRR 41 and IRR 42 clones. Cluster analysis showed that 45 clones of rubber were divided into two groups, the biggest group consisted of 30 clones, while the other one consisted of 15 clones with a genetic similarity value of 0,73.

Key words: rubber, RAPD, hand pollination, hevea breeding, parents trees.

Abstrak. Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi. 2011. Pemilihan pohon induk untuk pemuliaan karet (Hevea brasiliensis) berdasarkan analisis RAPD. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 124-129. Klon-klon yang digunakan sebagai pohon induk biasanya berasal dari generasi sebelumnya yang memiliki potensi produksi tinggi dengan karakter agronomi yang lebih baik. Karakter fenotipe dapat menentukan variabilitas genetik di antara aksesi, namun sangat sensitif terhadap faktor-faktor lingkungan, sehingga sering kali sulit untuk mengidentifikasi perbedaan antar klon. Variabilitas genetik atau hubungan kekerabatan antar klon karet dapat analisis dengan menggunakan metode RAPD, dan berdasarkan hasil analisis tersebut klon-klon tetua dapat dipilih. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis jarak genetik antar klon karet dengan menggunakan metode RAPD. Analisis dilakukan pada 45 klon karet dengan 12 primer acak. Perbandingan pita polimorfik hasil amplifikasi digunakan untuk menghasilkan koefisien kesamaan. Koefisien ini berguna untuk menyusun dendogram dengan menggunakan Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetical Averages (UPGMA). Amplifikasi DNA genom dari 45 klon menghasilkan 2408 fragmen DNA yang berukuran 250-3000 bp. Kisaran matriks kesamaan genetik cukup luas (59,18%-94,23%). Hal ini menunjukan bahwa sebagian besar klon memiliki tingkat polimorfisme yang rendah. Kesamaan genetik terendah (59,18%) ditemukan antara klon RRIC 110 dan AVROS 352, sedangkan yang tertinggi (94,23%) antara klon IRR 41 dan IRR 42. Analisis pengelompokkan menunjukkan bahwa 45 klon karet terbagi menjadi dua kelompok, kelompok terbesar terdiri dari 30 klon, sedangkan yang lain terdiri dari 15 klon dengan nilai kesamaan genetik 0,73.

Kata kunci: karet, RAPD, persilangan buatan, pemuliaan karet, pohon induk.

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